Evaluation de la santé bucco-dentaire des patients diabétiques Camerounais

Lawrence Essama Eno Belinga, Williams Bell Ngan, Joseph Stéphane Kouotou Mouliom, Siméon Pierre Choukem

Abstract


Objectif : L’objectif de cette étude était d’évaluer la santé bucco-dentaire des diabétiques de type 2 Camerounais.

Matériels et méthode : Quarante et un (41) adultes, diabétiques de type 2 suivis au service d’endocrinologie de l’Hôpital Général de Douala ont bénéficié d’un examen clinique endo buccal et ont fourni des informations relatives à leurs habitudes de vie et d’hygiène bucco-dentaire à travers un questionnaire. Les patients ont été répartis en 2 groupes, les patients contrôlés dont le taux d’HbA1c était inférieur à 7%, et les patients non contrôlés dont le taux d’HbA1C était supérieur ou égal à 7%. L’indice de plaque (IP), l’indice dents Cariées, Absentes ou Obturées (CAOD), et le Dutch Periodontal Screening Index (DPSI) ont été utilisés pour déterminer le statut bucco-dentaire des patients.

Résultats : L’âge médian de l’échantillon était de 58 ans et le taux d’HbA1c médian de l’échantillon était de 8%. L’IP médian de l’échantillon était de 0,58, le CAOD médian était de 1, et le DPSI médian était de 2. Les maladies parodontales et la carie étaient les seules pathologies rencontrées. Tous les patients souffraient d’une affection parodontale, près de 87,80% souffraient de gingivite et 12,20% étaient atteints de parodontite. La prévalence de la Carie était de 43,90%. Aucune différence significative n’a été observée entre les patients contrôlés et non contrôlés vis-à-vis des indices buccaux et les pathologies bucco-dentaires.

Conclusion : Une attention particulière devrait être accordée à l’amélioration de la santé parodontale des diabétiques au Cameroun, d’autant plus qu’il est établi que les soins parodontaux chez les diabétiques améliorent l’équilibre glycémique.

 

ABSTRACT

Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the oral health among Cameroonian adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

 Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 41 dentates type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, followed in the department of Endocrinology General Hospital of Douala. Relevant information regarding age, sex, Glycated hemoglobin level, complications, duration of diabetes, oral hygiene habits, and personal habits was collected. The study group was divided based on Glycated hemoglobin levels into well and poorly controlled. Clinical examination included identification of visible plaque, oral mucosa dental and periodontal examination. Dutch Periodontal Screening index (DPSI) was used to assess the periodontal status and treatment needs among adults diabetics people in Cameroon.

 Results: None of our patients had a healthy periodontium. Based on DPSI, 87,80% had gingivitis and 12,20% periodontitis. The prevalence of caries was 43,90%. No other oral disease was observed.

 Conclusion: Particular attention should be paid to improve periodontal health of people living with diabetes in Cameroon.


Keywords


Diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes, oral health, periodontal disease, tooth decay

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