Main Article Content

Abstract

ABSTRACT
La maladie à coronavirus 2019 (COVID19) est une infection systémique due au Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS COV 2). Les maladies auto-immunes résultent d’un dysfonctionnement du système immunitaire spécifique et sont subdivisées en deux groupes, maladie auto-immune systémique (exemple : le lupus érythémateux systémique, la polyarthrite rhumatoïde) et maladie auto-immune spécifique d’organe (exemple : le diabète de type 1 auto-immune, la maladie de Basedow). Quant aux maladies auto-inflammatoires, elles sont la résultante d’une dysrégulation du système immunitaire inné. Ainsi, deux groupes se distinguent, la maladie auto-inflammatoire monogénique (exemple : la fièvre méditerranéenne familiale, le déficit en IgD) et maladie auto-inflammatoire polygénique (exemple : les spondylarthropathies, la sarcoïdose, la maladie de Still). De plus en plus, dans les études de séries, des cas COVID 19 sont décrits chez les malades atteints des maladies auto-immunes et auto-inflammatoires. Parmi lesquels, le lupus érythémateux systémique, le syndrome des antiphospholipides, la polyarthrite rhumatoïde, psoriasis rhumatoïde, etc. La présente revue de la littérature a donc cinq objectifs. Premièrement, de faire un état de lieu sur la situation épidémiologique du COVID 19 et de son association aux maladies auto-immunes et auto-inflammatoires. Deuxièmement, de dégager les particularités et/ou les similarités physiopathologiques et cliniques entre le COVID 19 et les maladies auto-immunes et auto-inflammatoires. Troisièmement, de présenter les outils diagnostiques de références de COVID19. Quatrièmement, d’analyser le lien entre le COVID 19 et les maladies auto-immunes et auto-inflammatoires en termes de pronostic et de susceptibilité. En fin, cinquièmement, de discuter les traitements immunosuppresseurs au cours de l’infection à COVID 19.
RÉSUMÉ
Coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID19) is a systemic infection caused by SARS COV2. Autoimmune diseases result from a dysfunction of the specific immune system and are subdivided into two groups, systemic autoimmune disease (example: systemic lupus erythematous, rheumatoid arthritis) and organ-specific autoimmune disease (example: diabetes mellitus autoimmune type 1, Graves' disease). As for auto-inflammatory diseases, they are the result of a dysregulation of the innate immune system. Thus, two groups are distinguished, monogenic auto-inflammatory disease (example: familial Mediterranean fever, IgD deficiency) and polygenic auto-inflammatory disease (example: spondyloarthropathies, sarcoidosis, Still's disease). Increasingly, in studies with case-series, COVID 19 cases are described in patients with autoimmune and auto-inflammatory diseases. Among which, systemic lupus erythematosus, antiphospholipid syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatoid psoriasis, etc. This literature review therefore has five objectives. First, to present the current epidemiological aspects of COVID 19 and its association with autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases. Second, to expose the pathophysiological and clinical particularities and/or similarities between COVID 19 and autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases. Third, to present the reference diagnostic tools of COVID19. Fourth, to analyze the relationship between COVID 19 and autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases in terms of prognosis and susceptibility. Finally, fifth, to discuss immunosuppressive treatments during COVID 19 infection. We have opted for a literature review at this early stage of the COVID 19 pandemic, because our objectives are not to delve into any particular issue, but to present data that may guide internists, rheumatologists, and other practitioners involved in the management of autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases on the diagnostic and therapeutic issues that may be posed by the association of COVID 19 and autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases.

Keywords

COVID 19, auto-immune diseases, auto-inflammatory diseases, immunosuppressants COVID 19, maladies auto-immunes, maladies auto-inflammatoires, immunosuppresseurs.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kali, K., Traoré, D., Sy, D., Cissoko, M., Ouattara, B. Z., Joseph, K., Togo, M. . ., Traoré, A. M., Dabo, G., Doumbia, N., Dembélé, J. P., Keïta, M., Doumbia, S., Soukho, A. K., & Traoré, A. K. (2022). Maladies Autoimmunes et Autoinflammatoires dans un Contexte de Pandémie du COVID 19 : Une Revue de la Littérature. HEALTH SCIENCES AND DISEASE, 23(4). Retrieved from https://www.hsd-fmsb.org/index.php/hsd/article/view/3559

References

  1. Li B, Yang J, Zhao F, Zhi L, Wang X, Liu L, Bi Z, ZhaoY. Prevalence and impact of cardiovascular metabolic diseases on COVID-19 in China. Clinical Research in Cardiology. 2020; 109: 531–538.
  2. Guillevin L, Meyer O, Hachulla E, Sibilia J. Traité des Maladies et syndromes systémiques. In: TRON Fet Jean-François BACH JF. Concepts actuels de l'auto-immunité, PP 105 Paris, Lavoisier, 6è édition, 2015.
  3. Bouchekout R. Etude épidémio-clinique et biologique des maladies auto-immunes exprimant des facteurs anti nucléaires: particularité du lupus. Mémoire, Algérie, 2016, 90p.
  4. Collège Français des Enseignants en Rhumatologie (COFER). Item 112 : Réaction inflammatoire. Aspects biologiques et cliniques, conduite à tenir. Consulté le 06 avril 2019.
  5. Mathian A, Mahevas M, Rohmer J et al. Clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a series of 17 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus under long-term treatment with hydroxychloroquine. Ann Rheum Dis. 2020 Vol 0 No 0.
  6. Zhang Y, Xiao M, Zhang S et al. Coagulopathy and Antiphospholipid Antibodies in Patients with Covid-19. N Engl J Med 2020; 382:e38.
  7. Monti S, Balduzzi S, DelvinoP, Bellis E, Quadrelli VS, Montecucco C. Clinical course of COVID-19 in a series of patients with chronic arthritis treated with immunosuppressive targeted therapies. Ann Rheum Dis. 2020; 79: 667–668.
  8. Manalo IF, Smith MK, Cheeley J, Jacobs R. A Dermatologic Manifestation of COVID-19: Transient Livedo Reticularis, Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 2020.
  9. COVID-19 Dashboard by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU). ArcGIS. Johns Hopkins University. Consulté le 06 mai 2020.
  10. Africanews. Coronavirus in Africa. Consulté le 06 mai 2020
  11. Communiqué N°64 du Ministère de la Santé et des Affaires Sociales. Sur le suivi des actions de prévention et de riposte face à la maladie à CORONAVIRUS. malijet.com. consulté le 05 mai 2020.
  12. Arnaud I, Amoura Z. Lupus érythémateux systémique. EMC-Traité de Médecine AKOS 2012 ; 7(2) : 1 – 9
  13. Falgarone G, Marie-Christophe Boissier MC. Polyarthrite rhumatoïde. LA REVUE DU PRATICIEN. 2011 ; (61) : 119 – 126.
  14. Encyclopédie Orphanet Grand Public. Le syndrome des antiphospholipides. Juillet 2008. Consulté le 15 mai 2020.
  15. Baud D, Qi X, Nielsen-Saines K, Musso D, Pomar L, Favre G. Real estimates of mortality following COVID-19 infection. Lancet Infect Dis. 2020; S1473-3099(20)30195-X.
  16. Yuefei J, Haiyan Y , Wangquan J , Weidong W , Shuaiyin C , Weiguo Z, Guangcai D. Virology, Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, and Control of COVID-19. Viruses. 2020 ; 12, 372.
  17. Placais L, Richier Q. COVID-19 : caractéristiques cliniques, biologiques et radiologiques chez l’adulte, la femme enceinte et l’enfant. Une mise au point au cœur de la pandémie. La Revue de médecine interne. 2020 (41) 308–318.
  18. Wenling W, Yanli X , Ruqin G, Roujian L, Kai H, Guizhen W, Wenjie T . Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in Different Types of Clinical Specimens. JAMA. 2020; 323(18):1843-1844.
  19. Wenzhong L and Hualan L. COVID-19: Attacks the 1-Beta Chain of Hemoglobin and Captures the Porphyrin to Inhibit Human Heme Metabolism. 2020. Consulté le 15 mai 2020.
  20. Hanley B, Lucas SB, Youd E, Swift B, Osborn M. Autopsy in suspected COVID-19 cases. J Clin Pathol. 2020; 73: 239–242.
  21. McGonagle D, O’Donnell JS, Sharif K, Emery P, Bridgewood C. Immune mechanisms of pulmonary intravascular coagulopathy in COVID-19 pneumonia. Lancet Rheumatol. 2020.
  22. Silva-Filho J, Caruso-Neves C, Pinheiro A. Angiotensin II type-1 receptor (AT1R) regulates expansion, differentiation, and functional capacity of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Sci Rep. 2016; 6, 35997.
  23. Vivier E, Elena E, Baratin M, Walzer T. « Functions of natural killer cells ». Nature Immunology.2008; 9 (5): 503–510.
  24. Meijuan Z, Yong G, Gang W, Guobin S Siyu L, Dandan S, Yuanhong X, Zhigang T . « Functional exhaustion of antiviral lymphocytes in COVID-19 patients ». Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2020; 17: 533–535. DOI 10.1038/s41423-020-0402-2.
  25. Lei P, Mi M, Hong GR, and Lei T et al. Clinical characteristics of COVID-19 patients with digestive symptoms in Hubei, China: a descriptive, cross-sectional, multicenter study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2020; 115(5):766-773.
  26. Hamid Rabb. Kidney diseases in the time of COVID-19: major challenges to patient care. J Clin Invest. 2020 ; 1 – 3.
  27. Valizadeh R, Baradaran A, Mirzazadeh A, Bhaskar LV. Coronavirus-nephropathy; renal involvement in COVID-19. J Renal Inj Prev. 2020; 9(2): e18.
  28. Moriguchi T, Harii N, Goto J, and Shimada S et al. A first Case of
  29. Meningitis/Encephalitis associated with SARS-Coronavirus-2. International Journal of
  30. Infectious Diseases 2020; 94: 55-58
  31. Ling M, Mengdie W, Shengcai C. Neurological Manifestations of Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective case series study. medRxiv. 2020 preprint.
  32. Dong J, Enqiang Q, Jing X et al. Non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases in patients with COVID-19: A retrospective study. J Hepatol. 2020 ; S0168-8278(20)30206-3.
  33. Mathian A, Arnaud L, Amoura Z. Physiopathologie du lupus systémique : le point en 2014 Etiopathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematous: A 2014 update. La Revue de Médecine Interne. 2014 ; 35(8) : 503-511.
  34. Chapelon-Abric C. Sarcoïdose. EMC-Traité de méecine AKOS 2015 ; 10(3) : 1 – 4.
  35. Gerfaud-Valentin M, Sève P, Hot A, Brousselle C, Jamilloux Y. Données actualisées sur la physipathologie, les phénotypes et es traitements de la maladie de Still de l’adulte. La Revue de Médecine interne. 2015 ; 36 : 319 – 327.
  36. Durga PM, Vikas A, Armen YG, Olena Z. Rheumatologists’ perspective on coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and potential therapeutic targets. Clinical Rheumatology. 2020.
  37. Chapman AR Bularga A, Mill NL. : High-Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin Can Be An Ally in the Fight Against COVID-19. Circulation. 2020: publication avancée en ligne le 6 avril.
  38. Cheng Y, Luo R, Wang K and Xu G et al. Kidney disease is associated with in-hospital death of patients with COVID-19. Kidney International. 2020 ; 97,829–838.
  39. Hu K, Jay Patel J, Patel BC. Ophthalmic Manifestations of Coronavirus (COVID-19). Consulté le 10 mai 2020.
  40. Wu C, Chen X, Cai Y, Xia J, Zhou X, Xu S, et al. Risk factors associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome and death in patients with coronavirusdisease 2019 pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA Intern Med. 2020.
  41. Pateron D, Raphaël M, Trinh-Duc A. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Consulté le 10 mai 2020.
  42. Brandon M H, Giuseppe L. Chronic kidney disease is associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Int Urol Nephrol. 2020 ; 1–2.
  43. Keita K. Panorama des maladies auto-immunes et auto-inflammatoires en médecine interne au HU du Point G. Mémoire, FMOS, Bamako, 81p.
  44. Franklin J., Lunt M., Bunn D., Symmons D.P.M., Silman A.J. Risk and predictors of infection leading to hospitalisation in a large primary-care-derived cohort of patients with inflammatory polyarthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 2007; 66:308–312.
  45. Listing J, Gerhold K, Zink A. The risk of infections associated with rheumatoid arthritis, with its comorbidity and treatment. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2012; 52: 53–61.
  46. Favalli EG, Ingegnoli F, Lucia DO. COVID-19 infection and rheumatoid arthritis: Faraway, so close. Autoimmun Rev. 2020; 102523.
  47. Widdifield J, Bernatsky S, Paterson JM, Gunraj N, Thorne JC, Pope J. Serious infections in a population-based cohort of 86,039 seniors with rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Care Res. 2013; 65: 353–361.
  48. Smitten AL, Choi HK, Hochberg MC, Suissa S, Simon TA, Testa MA. The risk of hospitalized infection in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 2008; 35: 387–393.
  49. Singh JA, Wells GA, Christensen R, Ghogomu ET, Maxwell LJ, MacDonald JK. Adverse effects of biologics: a network meta-analysis and Cochrane overview. Cochrane Db Syst Rev. 2011.
  50. Clerkin KJ , Fried JA, Raikhelkar J and Uriel N et al. COVID-19 and Cardiovascular Disease.Circulation. 2020; 141: 1648–1655.

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>