Les Motifs d’Admission dans le Centre de Traitement Ebola de Police Training School II de Freetown, Sierra Leone

D Samaké, D Goita, M Traoré, D S Coulibaly, B S Kéita, A Diarra, I Konaté, M Diawara, M Coulibaly, M Dembélé, S Dao

Abstract


 


RÉSUMÉ
Introduction/ but. La maladie à virus Ebola se manifeste par une fièvre associée à des signes divers non spécifiques. En période d’épidémie, tout signe associé à la fièvre pourrait conduire un patient dans un centre de triage. L’objectif de ce travail était de décrire la distribution des motifs d’admission des patients dans le centre de traitement Ebola (CTE) de Police training School II (PTSII) de Freetown en Sierra Leone. Méthodes. Il s’agissait d’une étude transversale rétrospective qui consistait en une analyse des données relatives aux motifs d’admission entre décembre 2014 et février 2015. La PCR était utilisée pour la confirmation des cas de la maladie à virus Ebola. Un test de diagnostic rapide du paludisme était systématiquement réalisé chez tous les patients. Résultats. Nous avons enregistré 152 admissions dont 93 hommes et 59 femmes. 52 patients soit 34,21% des admissions avaient une PCR positive. La moyenne d’âge des patients était de 28,37 ans avec des extrêmes de 2 et 72 ans. Les signes les plus fréquents chez les sujets avec PCR positive étaient dans l’ordre : manque appétit, fièvre, douleur abdominale, vomissement, conjonctivite, dysphagie + dyspnée, fatigue intense, diarrhée, céphalées, hoquet. Conclusion. La maladie à virus Ebola n’a pas de caractéristiques symptomatologiques spécifiques. La similitude symptomatologique de la maladie à virus Ebola avec les pathologies infectieuses endémiques en Afrique explique l’engouement des populations vers les centres de traitement Ebola en période d’épidémie.
ABSTRACT
Introduction/Purpose. Ebola virus disease (EVD) is manifested by fever associated with various non-specific signs. During an epidemic, any sign associated with fever could lead a patient to an Ebola treatment center. The objective of this work was to describe the distribution of reasons for admission of patients to the Ebola Treatment Center Police Training School (PTSII) in Freetown, Sierra Leone. Methods. This was a cross sectional retrospective study which consisted of an analysis of data on the reasons for admission of patients between December 2014 and February 2015. The PCR was used for confirmation of cases of Ebola virus. A rapid diagnostic test for malaria was routinely performed in all patients. Results. We recorded 152 admissions, including 93 men and 59 women. The PCR result was positive in 52 patients (34.21%) of admissions. The average age of patients was 28.37 years with extremes of 2 and 72 years. The most common reasons of admission of positive PCR patients were by decreasing order of frequency: anorexia, fever, abdominal pain, vomiting, conjunctivitis, dysphagia + dyspnea, intense fatigue, diarrhea, headache and hiccup. Conclusion. We found no specific combination of signs and symptoms for EVD. Similarity of signs and symptoms between EVD and other common infectious tropical diseases may explain why many patients consult Ebola treatment centers during epidemics.


Keywords


Motifs d’admission; Ebola; CTE; Freetown-Sierra Leone.

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